Single-Component NPIs


There are a number of single-component interventions that have been studied in older adults, especially in older adults with dementia.

Nonpharmacologic therapies can help resolve the distress and decline in social function that high-risk older adults with dementia can experience in the acute care setting.

These include:

  • Staff education, reorientation protocol
  • Music therapy
  • Bright-light therapy
  • Doll therapy
  • Therapeutic activity kits


There is limited empirical evidence to support the use and therapeutic effectiveness of some of these interventions in the ED.


NPI, nonpharmacologic intervention