Musculoskeletal Changes


  • decreased skeletal muscle
  • deterioration of cartilage
  • osteoporosis


  • decreased strength
  • arthritis
  • increased risk of fractures


More specifically, changes in the musculoskeletal system contribute to an increased number of falls and injury from falls.

These changes have significant effect on patient quality of life and risk of falls.

There are also important cardiovascular changes:

  • Reserve
  • HR
  • Baroreceptor sensitivity


Kahn JH, Magauran BG, Olshaker JS, eds. Geriatric Emergency Medicine: Principles and Practice. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press; 2014.